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Checking links on a website with Python

Dead links are a common problem for live websites. You can use Python to check them. The requests and Beautiful Soup libraries are great for loading pages as HTML and parsing them.

Example script

The following check_links_on_website.py script performs the following given a URL called the starting page:

  1. Get all href links from <a> tags on the starting page.
  2. Get the status code for each href link. A status code of 200 means the link loads OK.
  3. If you want, recursively perform steps 1 and 2 on all pages from the same website that the starting page links to.
  4. Output the results to the console and a .csv file in the format: page checked, status code, href, display text in <a> tag, absolute url checked for status code.

The script gets the status code for each href link even if the link is to a different website, but it limits the recursive check to only links on the same website domain of the starting page. For example, if your domain.tld website links to domain.tld/page and wikipedia.org/page, then the script can check all the links on domain.tld/page, but not on wikipedia.org/page.

check_links_on_website.py
#! /usr/bin/python3### Python 3.8.10# WSL: Ubuntu-20.04# Copyright 2022 Theodore Chu# This source code is licensed under the MIT license# available at https://theochu.com/MIT-License.txt##import argparse, re, traceback, requestsfrom os import pathfrom bs4 import BeautifulSoupfrom io import TextIOWrapperSTARTING_PAGE = "https://theochu.com/about/"DOMAIN = "theochu.com"HTTPS = "https://"BASE_URL = HTTPS + DOMAINFILE_OUT = "check_links_on_website"FILE_OUT_CSV = FILE_OUT + ".csv"ABSOLUTE_URL = "Absolute url of link"DISPLAY_TEXT = "Display text in <a> tag"HREF = "HREF link in the <a> tag"STATUS_CODE = "Status code of link"URL = "URL of page"TYPE_NAVIGABLE_STRING = "<class 'bs4.element.NavigableString'>"REGEXP_ANCHOR_LINK = "#(.*)$"REGEXP_HTTP = "http[s]?://"REGEXP_HTTP_LINK_WITH_PATH = "http[s]?://(.*?)/"pages_checked = []pages_to_check = []status_codes = {}def get_domain(url: str):    """    Get the domain of a website given its url. For example,    if given https://subdomain.domain.tld/path/to/page or    http://subdomain.domain.tld, then return subdomain.domain.tld    """    matches = re.findall(REGEXP_HTTP_LINK_WITH_PATH, url)    if matches:        return matches[-1]    else:        return re.sub(REGEXP_HTTP, "", url)def get_absolute_url(base_url: str, path: str):    "Get absolute url given base_url and path"    if path == "#" or path == "/":        return base_url    if path.startswith("/") or path.startswith("#"):        return base_url + path    else:        return pathdef get_links_on_page(    url: str,    base_url: str,    file_out: TextIOWrapper,    output_only_bad_links: bool,):    """    Get the links on a page. Check them and output the    result to the console and output file.    """    print("Checking links for", url)    pages_checked.append(url)    pages_to_check.remove(url)    try:        html = requests.get(url).text        soup = BeautifulSoup(html, "html.parser")        a_tags = soup.find_all("a")        for link in a_tags:            href = link.get("href")            """            Checking links doesn't work for same-page links because            if the page returns a status code of 200,            then the same-page link return 200 as well            """            if href.startswith("#"):                pass            result = {                URL: url,                STATUS_CODE: "",                HREF: "",                DISPLAY_TEXT: "",                ABSOLUTE_URL: "",            }            result[HREF] = href            if str(link.string) != "None":                result[DISPLAY_TEXT] = link.string            else:                for content in link.contents:                    if str(type(content)) == TYPE_NAVIGABLE_STRING:                        result[DISPLAY_TEXT] = str(content)            absolute_url = get_absolute_url(base_url, href)            result[ABSOLUTE_URL] = absolute_url            # Don't check if the link is on localhost            if "localhost:" not in href:                if absolute_url in status_codes:                    result[STATUS_CODE] = status_codes[absolute_url]                else:                    status_code = requests.get(absolute_url).status_code                    status_codes[absolute_url] = status_code                    result[STATUS_CODE] = status_code            if href != "/" and href != "#":                if (                    absolute_url.startswith(base_url)                    and not re.search(REGEXP_ANCHOR_LINK, absolute_url)                    and absolute_url not in pages_checked                    and absolute_url not in pages_to_check                ):                    pages_to_check.append(absolute_url)            if result[STATUS_CODE] != 200 or not output_only_bad_links:                output_result(result, file_out)    except Exception as e:        print("Error checking", url)        print(e)        track = traceback.format_exc()        print(track)def output_result(result: dict, file_out: TextIOWrapper):    output_array = [        result[URL],        str(result[STATUS_CODE]),        result[HREF],        result[DISPLAY_TEXT],        result[ABSOLUTE_URL],    ]    print(", ".join(output_array))    file_out.write(", ".join(output_array) + "\n")def check_links_on_website(    starting_page=STARTING_PAGE,    base_url=BASE_URL,    file_out=FILE_OUT_CSV,    all_pages=False,    output_only_bad_links=False,):    pages_to_check.append(starting_page)    file_out = open(file_out, "w")    header = [URL, STATUS_CODE, HREF, DISPLAY_TEXT, ABSOLUTE_URL]    file_out.write(", ".join(header) + "\n")    while pages_to_check:        get_links_on_page(            pages_to_check[0], base_url, file_out, output_only_bad_links        )        if not all_pages:            break        print("Pages left to check:", pages_to_check)    file_out.close()def main():    parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(        description="Checks links on a website and "        + "output status codes to a CSV file."    )    parser.add_argument(        "-s",        "--starting_page",        type=str,        help="The url to check (default: {})".format(STARTING_PAGE),        default=STARTING_PAGE,    )    parser.add_argument(        "-o",        "--output_file",        type=str,        help="The output .csv file (default: {})".format(            FILE_OUT + "_domain" + ".csv"        ),    )    parser.add_argument(        "-r",        "--recursive",        action="store_true",        help="Recursively check entire website (default: False)",        default=False,    )    parser.add_argument(        "-oobl",        "--output_only_bad_links",        action="store_true",        help="Output links only with status_code != 200 (default: False)",        default=False,    )    args = parser.parse_args()    starting_page = args.starting_page    if not re.match(REGEXP_HTTP, starting_page):        starting_page = HTTPS + starting_page    domain = get_domain(starting_page)    base_url = HTTPS + domain    if args.output_file == None:        file_out = FILE_OUT + "_" + domain + ".csv"    if path.exists(file_out):        print("WARNING. The file '" + file_out + "' already exists.")        print("You're about to overwrite the file.")        confirmation = input("Are you sure you want to proceed? (y/n) ")        if not (confirmation.lower() == "y"):            print("You didn't input 'y' or 'Y'. Exiting...")            exit()        print("You inputted '" + confirmation + "'. Proceeding...")    check_links_on_website(        starting_page=starting_page,        base_url=base_url,        file_out=file_out,        all_pages=args.recursive,        output_only_bad_links=args.output_only_bad_links,    )if __name__ == "__main__":    main()

Using the script

Before you use the example script, read its limitations. To use the script:

  1. Install the requests and bs4 (Beautiful Soup) libraries:

    pip install requests bs4
  2. Create a file called check_links_on_website.py and paste the script in it. Save the file.

  3. Run the script, replacing https://example.com with the page you want to check.

    python3 check_links_on_website.py -s https://example.com

To stop the script while it's running, press Ctrl+C on your keyboard.

Options

The script has the following options:

  • To specify a starting page, run the script with -h <https://domain.tld>.
  • To specify an output file, run the script with -o <outputfile.csv>.
  • To recursively check all pages linked from the starting page, run the script with the -r or --recursive flag.
  • To output only links with status codes that aren't 200, run the script with the -oobl or --output_only_bad_links flag.

For more information on the options, run the script with the --help command:

python3 check_links_on_website.py --help

Limitations

The example script has the following limitations:

  • The script executes synchronously, so if you want it to recursively check a large website, it might take a while.
  • If the script finds an href link with a root-based path instead of an absolute URL, such as /path/to/page, then the script checks that page with https:// instead of http://. This might be a problem if the page doesn't support https://.
  • The script might not work with relative paths such as ./path/to/page, ../path/to/page, or ../../path/to/page.
  • If you stop the script while it's executing recursively, then it restarts completely if you run it again on the same website. The script doesn't yet pick up where it left off.
  • The script focuses on retrieving status codes, so it doesn't detect the validity of anchor links. If you want to check links in Markdown code, consider using remark-validate-links instead.